Did France play a particular role in the 1994 genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda? How can this role be defined? “France is not an accomplice to this crime against humanity, but its responsibilities are heavy and overwhelming” concludes the report of the Rwanda mission led by historian Vincent Duclert and submitted to French President Emmanuel Macron on 26 March 2021. Vincent Duclert, a specialist of genocides, is invited by the Boghossian Foundation to decipher these dark years with Gaïdz Minassian.