The Boghossian Foundation – Villa Empain will be exceptionally closed on Saturday 13 July from 4 pm. We advise you to arrive for the visit of the exhibitions Josef and Anni Albers and Beyond the lines at 3 pm at the latest. Thank you for your understanding.

Geopolitics expert Carole André-Dessornes sheds light on the concepts of embargo, blockade, siege and boycott, and questions the effectiveness of these types of sanctions.

From the most emblematic embargoes in the history of the Middle East, dating back to the siege of Troy, to current sanctions in Libya, Iran, the Middle East and the Arab countries of the Gulf, Carole André-Dessornes offers a number of pointers for discussion.

In many ways akin to wars of attrition, the aim of these punitive policies is to bend existing regimes and drive populations out of power. These sanctions, designed to avoid military confrontation, have never brought down the regimes in place, as the examples of Libya, Syria and Iran all demonstrate. In a number of cases – starting with Iraq – they have been a denial of the most fundamental rights, and a source of humanitarian disasters.

What lessons can we draw from these “silent wars”, which have been fought without bloodshed, explosions or bombings, but whose consequences have been no less terrible? Carole André-Dessornes, in conversation with Gaïdz Minassian, shares her thoughts with us.

The lecture will be followed by a book-signing session for her latest book, Guerres silencieuses. Embargos et blocus au Moyen-Orient de 1948 à nos jours, published in 2023 by Geuthner.